Reality

******* Namo Buddhaya *******

Dhamma wheel 2x2

Flow Chart of living being

Living being suffer in never ceasing cycle of existence, as the reality is not seen due to the delusion created by ignorance and craving. Above diagram explains different stages of division which will only be able to discover through insight meditation.

There are two realitiesapparent and ultimate. Apparent reality is ordinary conventional truth (sammuti-sacca). Ultimate reality is abstract truth (paramattha-sacca).

The word paramattha is of great significance in Higher Doctrine. It is a compound formed of parama and attha. Parama is explained as immutable (aviparãta), abstract (nibbaññita); attha means thing. Paramattha, therefore, means immutable or abstract thing. Abstract reality may be suggested as the closest equivalent. Although the term immutable is used here it should not be. understood that all paramatthas are eternal or permanent.

There are four such Paramatthas or abstract realities. These four embrace everything that is mundane or supra- mundane.

The so-called being is mundane. Nibbàna is supra- mundane. The former is composed of Nàma and Råpa. According to Higher Doctrine (Abhidhamma) “Råpa” connotes both funda- mental units of matter and material changes as well. As such Abhidhamma enumerates 28 species of Form or matter. “Nàma” denotes both Mind or consciousness and mental factors. Mental Factors (Cetasikas) which are 52 in number. One of these is “Vedanà” (feeling). Another is “Sannà” (perception). The remaining 50 are col- lectively called “Sankhàra”. (mental factors). The receptacle of these mental properties is “Vinnana” (consciousness).

According to the above analysis the so-called being is composed of five Groups or Aggregates (Pancakkhandha):— Form (Råpa),  Feeling (Vedanà), Perception (Sannà), Mental Factors (Sankhàra)  and Consciousness (Vinnàna).

Five Aggregates

Form    Feeling   Perception   Mental Factors    Mind

This is the only absolute reality, which is the summum bonum of Buddhism. The other three are called realities in that they are things that exist (vijjamàna dhammà). Besides, they are irreducible, immutable, and abstract things. They deal with what is within us and around us.

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